Kijoo Cha (Early Childhood Education, Gachon University)
- The present study examined interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes in about 1,620 Korean children with three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first two years of life.
- Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) demonstrated moderate to low degrees of stability in negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes, declining from infancy to toddlerhood.
- Responsive parenting predicted higher levels of subsequent child communication (in infancy and toddlerhood), and infants’ higher problem-solving ability predicted higher responsive parenting in toddlerhood.
- These findings emphasize the importance of providing warm and responsive parenting, especially during the first year of life.
Author keywords: negative emotionality, reciprocity, responsive parenting, child gender, stability of temperament