Wednesday, 29 June 2016

The Maternal (Non) Responsiveness Questionnaire: Initial Factor Structure and Validation

Esther Leerkes (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
Jin Qu (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)

Paper highlights

  • In this paper  the reliability and validity of the newly-developed Maternal (Non)Responsiveness Questionnaire (MRQ) was examined
  • Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis were used. Three-factor structure was confirmed.
  • The non-responsiveness scale demonstrated the best  convergent and predicative validity, and can be used as a supplement for observational measures of maternal responsiveness.

Author keywords: maternal responsiveness, self report, infant crying

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1992

Development of Rigid Motion Perception in Response to Radially Expanding Optic Flow

Erika Izumi (Graduate school of modern society and culture, Niigata University)
Nobu Shirai (Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University)
So Kanazawa (Department of Psychology, Japan Women's University)
Masami K. Yamaguchi (Department of psychology, Chuo University)

Paper Highlights

  • The main question of this paper is development of rigidity perception in response to radial optic flow.
  • We compared the perceptions of object rigidity in response to radial flows and results suggest that the perception of rigidity is similar in 9–12 years children and adults.
  • The main finding is the ability to perceive rigidity based on the speed gradient of a radial flow develops among childhood
Author keywords: development, elementary school children, rigidity, speed gradient, radially expanding optic flow

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1989

Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-cognitive Development in Korean Children

Kijoo Cha (Early Childhood Education, Gachon University)

Paper Highlights:-

  • The present study examined interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes in about 1,620 Korean children with three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first two years of life.
  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) demonstrated moderate to low degrees of stability in negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes,  declining from infancy to toddlerhood. 
  • Responsive parenting predicted higher levels of subsequent child communication (in infancy and toddlerhood), and infants’ higher problem-solving ability predicted higher responsive parenting in toddlerhood. 
  • These findings emphasize the importance of providing warm and responsive parenting, especially during the first year of life.
Author keywords: negative emotionality, reciprocity, responsive parenting, child gender, stability of temperament

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1990

Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma and Early Parenting: Prenatal and Postnatal Associations

B. J. Zvara (The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
S. Meltzer-Brody (he University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
W. R. Mills-Koonce (he University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
M. Cox (he University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
The Family Life Project Key Investigators*

Paper Highlights:-

  • Using propensity-matched controls, this study examines prenatal psychosocial distress, postnatal depressive symptomatology and parenting  of women reporting childhood sexual trauma
  • Childhood sexual trauma is related to greater prenatal psychosocial distress which is related to less sensitive parenting through postnatal depression.
  • These results highlight the importance of screening for childhood sexual trauma  and psychosocial distress and depression prenatally

Author keywords: childhood sexual trauma, sensitve parenting, prenatal distress, postnatal depression, propensity matched design

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1991

The Family Life Project (FLP) Key Investigators include Lynne Vernon Feagans, The University of North Carolina; Martha Cox, The University of North Carolina; Clancy Blair, New York University; Peg Burchinal, The University of North Carolina; Linda Burton, Duke University; Keith Crnic, The Arizona State University; Ann Crouter, The Pennsylvania State University; Patricia Garrett-Peters, The University of North Carolina; Mark Greenberg, The Pennsylvania State University; Stephanie Lanza, The Pennsylvania State University; Roger Mills-Koonce, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Emily Werner, The Pennsylvania State University; and Michael Willoughby, The University of North Carolina

Monday, 13 June 2016

Blog: 5-month-olds multisensory perception and the development of the self

As human beings, we experience our body through sensing and acting in the surrounding environment. Throughout our daily encounters we feel our body as belonging to ourselves, we perceive our movements in a unique manner, and we are able to recognize our face as distinguished from any other face. For example, infants encountering their reflection in a mirror become familiar with their unique facial features, as well as the perfect correspondence between their performed movements and the movements seen in the reflective surface. While much attention has been given to the conceptual aspects of selfhood, such as self-awareness and consciousness, how and when the more rudimental, perceptual components that define our bodily-self originate and develop is still a matter of debate.

In the last two decades, research with adults has shown that body awareness is highly influenced by the integration of cues arising from different sensory modalities, suggesting that the combination of motor, proprioceptive, tactile, and visual signals may represent valuable precursors of body perception from the earliest stages of development. For example, in the famous rubber hand illusion, a fake hand placed in front of a person and stroked at the same time as the person’s own hand, leads to perceiving the rubber hand as belonging to oneself. In this illusion, the synchrony between visual and tactile signals produces a powerful association between the feeling of being touch and the visual stroking event. A similar trick has been applied to our most distinctive body part that is the face, suggesting that the integration of different sensory modalities might be crucial not just for our body perception, but also in the construction and update of self-recognition.
In the present study, we used facial stimuli to study 5-month-old infants’ looking behaviour in response to visual-tactile temporal synchrony. Infants watched a side-by-side video display of a peer’s face being systematically stroked on the cheek with a paintbrush. During the video presentation, the infant’s own cheek was stroked in synchrony with one video and in asynchrony with the other. Our result demonstrates that 5-month-old infants are able to discriminate between visual-tactile synchrony and asynchrony, by showing a visual preference for the synchronous facial stimulus. This finding is consistent with the possibility that some precursors of self-recognition are already present in the first 5 months of life. This study also suggests that self-specifying information is crucial in this period of development, allowing infants to differentiate between self and others. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future studies should manipulate visual appearance (self-face versus other-face) together with multisensory cues.

Tuesday, 7 June 2016

Special Issue: Infant do, infant see: The role of feedback to infant behavior for the understanding of self and others

Volume 25, Issue 3 Pages 231 - 332, May/June 2016

Issue information

Further details below:-

The roots of turn-taking in the neonatal period.

S. Dominguez (Paris Ouest Nanterre University)
E. Devouche (Paris Descartes University, & Erasme Hospital, Psychiatry and Psychopathology Research Institute)
G. Apter (Paris Descartes University, & Paris Diderot University)
M. Gratier (Paris Ouest Nanterre University, & Paris Diderot University)

Paper Highlights

  • Newborn vocalizations occur mainly after a maternal vocalization and very few are isolated
  •  Vocal exchange between mother and newborn appears to be organized within a 1-sec time window
  • From birth, infants take turns

Author Keywords: mother–infant interaction, turn-taking, social contingency, vocal development

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1976

Monday, 6 June 2016

Preferences for ‘Gender-typed’ Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

Brenda K. Todd (City University London)
John A. Barry (University College London)
Sara A. O. Thommessen (City University London)

Paper Highlights
This study finds sex differences in gender-typical toy choice in children aged as young as 9 to 14 months old.

Coverage related to this article:-
BPS Digest: 'When do girls and boys start preferring gender-stereotypical toys?'
Mail Online: 'Mums who refuse to let their girls wear anything pink - no matter how much they wail and beg!'

Author Keywords: sex differences, toy preference, play, gender differences, infancy

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1986

Do Questions Get Infants Talking? Infant Vocal Responses to Questions and Declaratives in Maternal Speech

Melissa Reimchen (Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba)
Melanie Soderstrom (Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba)

Paper Highlights

  • Mothers interacted with their infants in a laboratory setting
  • 10- and 14-month-old infants did not vocalize more in response to maternal questions than declaratives
  • Mothers repeated questions more at 14 months

Author keywords: maternal questions, infant vocal behaviour, turn-taking

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1985

Self-Regulation: Relations with Theory of Mind and Social Behaviour

Irem Korucu (Department of Psychology, Koc University)
Bilge Selcuk (Department of Psychology, Koc University)
Mehmet Harma (Department of Psychology, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University)

Paper Highlights

  • Self-regulation skills have an important role in both early cognitive abilities and social behaviours.
  • Children who have a better understanding of others’ minds display more social competency, but this cognitive perspective-taking ability is not related to aggressive behaviours.
  • Intervention research that targets positive social development should focus on both self-regulation skills and mental state understanding.

Author keywords: self regulation, theory of mind, social development, social competence, aggressive behavior, preschool

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1986

Relationship between Social Cognition and Temperament in Preschool-aged Children

Jennifer LaBounty (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Lindsey Bosse (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Stephanie Savicki (University of Texas, Department of Psychology)
Jaline King (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Sophie Eisenstat (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)

Paper Highlights
  • Preschool understanding of emotion and of mental states, such as beliefs and desires, is related to their temperament
  • Understanding of mental states (theory of mind) is associated with shy and observant temperament
  • Understanding of emotion in others is related to attention focusing and enjoyment of low arousal activities

Author Keywords: social cognition, temperament, theory of mind, emotion understanding

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1981