Thursday, 10 November 2016

Developmental differences in cognitive control of social information

Andrea Marotta (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome)
Maria Casagrande (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome)

Paper highlights:-
- We examined the developmental differences in the ability to exert cognitive control on social and non-social directional information

- Evidence of age-related differences in the inhibitory control of attention was only observed with social eye-gaze distracters

- Inhibitory mechanisms of social attention continue to improve along development

Keywords: arrow, attention, children, eye‐gaze
Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.2005

Associations between early maternal sensitivity and children's sleep throughout early childhood

Émilie Tétreault, (University of Montreal)
Andrée-Anne Bouvette-Turcot, (University of Montreal)
Annie Bernier, (University of Montreal)
Heidi Bailey (University of Guelph)

Paper highlights:-
- Associations between three dimensions of early maternal sensitivity and children's sleep from 1 to 4 years of age were investigated.

- Maternal sensitivity was positively associated with children's sleep between 2 and 4 years, but not at 12 and 18 months.

- The results suggest that child age could be a key factor in the associations between maternal behavior and children's sleep.

Keywords: child sleep, early childhood, maternal sensitivity 

Link to article
doi 10.1002/icd.2004

Family members' helping behavior: Alliance formations during naturalistic polyadic conflicts

Ryan J. Persram (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)

Nina Howe (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)
Sandra Della Porta (Department of Education, Concordia University, Montreal)
Hildy S. Ross (Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo)

Paper Highlights:
- Conflicts involving three or more family members occurs quite often at home.
- Alliances are a common role that family members assume in conflict, as they try to achieve a favourable outcome for their side.
- Children's involvement both as initiators and additional parties highlight their learning of various complex conflict behaviours in childhood.

Keywords: alliance, context, family relations, social interaction

The role of fantasy–reality distinctions in preschoolers' learning from educational video

Rebekah A. Richert (University of California)

Molly A. Schlesinger (University of California)

Paper Highlights:-

1. Over the preschool years, children come to understand what aspects of animated programs are and are not possible in the real world.
2. Preschoolers learn problem-solving skills from animated shows when they have a clear boundary between fantasy and reality.
3. Engaging with moderate fantastical content in animated programs can support abstract thinking.

Keywords: educational media, fantasy-reality, learning, analogical transfer, cognitive development 

Link to article

Thursday, 11 August 2016

Volume 25, Issue 4, July/August 2016

The Moderation Role of Self-perceived Maternal Empathy in Observed Mother–Child Collaborative Problem Solving

Ebenézer A. de Oliveira (Department of Psychology, Malone University)

Emily A. Jackson (Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania)

Paper Highlights

  • This study examined whether various forms of observed maternal support would decrease linearly with increase in child age or motor skill, and increase linearly as the observed problem-solving task became more difficult. The study also tested the moderation role of maternal self-perceived empathy in the maternal support during mother-child problem solving.
  • Teachers rated children's motor skills; verbal and physical support were systematically observed during a co-constructive collaborative problem solving task. Mothers diminished verbal support as children aged. Also, higher teacher ratings of children's motor skill related negatively to lower maternal cognitive support, consistent with the notion of scaffolding. Mothers reporting higher empathy increased their cognitive and physical support as task difficulty also increased.
  • Results suggest that more empathetic mothers provide support that is neither excessive nor inadequate, but just right, based on objective task difficulty. When participating in joint problem-solving tasks with young children, mothers (and other adults) are encouraged to: (1) be sensitive to children's cognitive perspective and emotional state, (2) value, encourage, and praise children's efforts, and (3) adjust amount of support not only based on children's age, but also on their skill level and task difficulty
Author keywords: collaborative problem solving, scaffolding, maternal empathy, child motor skills, preschoolers, mother-child dyads 

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1993

An embodiment perspective on number-space mapping in Dutch 3.5-year-old children

Jaccoline E. van 't Noordende (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
M(Chiel). J. M. Volman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Paul P. M. Leseman (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)
Evelyn H. Kroesbergen (Department of Special Education: Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University)

Paper Highlights

  • This study investigates if number-space mapping direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance.
  • Block adding, subtracting and counting tasks show that early number-space mapping is related to ipsilateral hand use.
  • It can be concluded that early number-space mapping is embodied: it is not fixed, but related to the situation.
Author keywords: number, space, counting, embodiment 
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1995

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development and Stability of Executive Functions in Children of Preschool Age: A Longitudinal Study of Japanese Twins

Keiko K. Fujisawa (Department of Education, Faculty of Letters, Keio University)
Naoya Todo (National Institute for Academic Degrees and Quality Enhancement of Higher Education, Tokyo)
Juko Ando (Department of Education, Faculty of Letters, Keio University)

Paper Highlights:

  • Etiology of the development of executive functions during preschool years was investigated using longitudinal and multivariate behavioral genetic analyses.
  • The development and stability of executive functions were brought about by both genetic and environmental influences.
  • Findings highlighted the fact that preschool period is an important transitional stage for the development of executive functions

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1994

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

The Maternal (Non) Responsiveness Questionnaire: Initial Factor Structure and Validation

Esther Leerkes (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
Jin Qu (Human Development and Family Studies, University of North Carolina at Greensboro)

Paper highlights

  • In this paper  the reliability and validity of the newly-developed Maternal (Non)Responsiveness Questionnaire (MRQ) was examined
  • Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis were used. Three-factor structure was confirmed.
  • The non-responsiveness scale demonstrated the best  convergent and predicative validity, and can be used as a supplement for observational measures of maternal responsiveness.

Author keywords: maternal responsiveness, self report, infant crying

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1992

Development of Rigid Motion Perception in Response to Radially Expanding Optic Flow

Erika Izumi (Graduate school of modern society and culture, Niigata University)
Nobu Shirai (Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University)
So Kanazawa (Department of Psychology, Japan Women's University)
Masami K. Yamaguchi (Department of psychology, Chuo University)

Paper Highlights

  • The main question of this paper is development of rigidity perception in response to radial optic flow.
  • We compared the perceptions of object rigidity in response to radial flows and results suggest that the perception of rigidity is similar in 9–12 years children and adults.
  • The main finding is the ability to perceive rigidity based on the speed gradient of a radial flow develops among childhood
Author keywords: development, elementary school children, rigidity, speed gradient, radially expanding optic flow

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1989

Relationships among Negative Emotionality, Responsive Parenting and Early Socio-cognitive Development in Korean Children

Kijoo Cha (Early Childhood Education, Gachon University)

Paper Highlights:-

  • The present study examined interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes in about 1,620 Korean children with three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first two years of life.
  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) demonstrated moderate to low degrees of stability in negative emotionality, responsive parenting, and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes,  declining from infancy to toddlerhood. 
  • Responsive parenting predicted higher levels of subsequent child communication (in infancy and toddlerhood), and infants’ higher problem-solving ability predicted higher responsive parenting in toddlerhood. 
  • These findings emphasize the importance of providing warm and responsive parenting, especially during the first year of life.
Author keywords: negative emotionality, reciprocity, responsive parenting, child gender, stability of temperament

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1990

Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma and Early Parenting: Prenatal and Postnatal Associations

B. J. Zvara (The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
S. Meltzer-Brody (he University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
W. R. Mills-Koonce (he University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
M. Cox (he University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
The Family Life Project Key Investigators*

Paper Highlights:-

  • Using propensity-matched controls, this study examines prenatal psychosocial distress, postnatal depressive symptomatology and parenting  of women reporting childhood sexual trauma
  • Childhood sexual trauma is related to greater prenatal psychosocial distress which is related to less sensitive parenting through postnatal depression.
  • These results highlight the importance of screening for childhood sexual trauma  and psychosocial distress and depression prenatally

Author keywords: childhood sexual trauma, sensitve parenting, prenatal distress, postnatal depression, propensity matched design

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1991

The Family Life Project (FLP) Key Investigators include Lynne Vernon Feagans, The University of North Carolina; Martha Cox, The University of North Carolina; Clancy Blair, New York University; Peg Burchinal, The University of North Carolina; Linda Burton, Duke University; Keith Crnic, The Arizona State University; Ann Crouter, The Pennsylvania State University; Patricia Garrett-Peters, The University of North Carolina; Mark Greenberg, The Pennsylvania State University; Stephanie Lanza, The Pennsylvania State University; Roger Mills-Koonce, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Emily Werner, The Pennsylvania State University; and Michael Willoughby, The University of North Carolina

Monday, 13 June 2016

Blog: 5-month-olds multisensory perception and the development of the self

As human beings, we experience our body through sensing and acting in the surrounding environment. Throughout our daily encounters we feel our body as belonging to ourselves, we perceive our movements in a unique manner, and we are able to recognize our face as distinguished from any other face. For example, infants encountering their reflection in a mirror become familiar with their unique facial features, as well as the perfect correspondence between their performed movements and the movements seen in the reflective surface. While much attention has been given to the conceptual aspects of selfhood, such as self-awareness and consciousness, how and when the more rudimental, perceptual components that define our bodily-self originate and develop is still a matter of debate.

In the last two decades, research with adults has shown that body awareness is highly influenced by the integration of cues arising from different sensory modalities, suggesting that the combination of motor, proprioceptive, tactile, and visual signals may represent valuable precursors of body perception from the earliest stages of development. For example, in the famous rubber hand illusion, a fake hand placed in front of a person and stroked at the same time as the person’s own hand, leads to perceiving the rubber hand as belonging to oneself. In this illusion, the synchrony between visual and tactile signals produces a powerful association between the feeling of being touch and the visual stroking event. A similar trick has been applied to our most distinctive body part that is the face, suggesting that the integration of different sensory modalities might be crucial not just for our body perception, but also in the construction and update of self-recognition.
In the present study, we used facial stimuli to study 5-month-old infants’ looking behaviour in response to visual-tactile temporal synchrony. Infants watched a side-by-side video display of a peer’s face being systematically stroked on the cheek with a paintbrush. During the video presentation, the infant’s own cheek was stroked in synchrony with one video and in asynchrony with the other. Our result demonstrates that 5-month-old infants are able to discriminate between visual-tactile synchrony and asynchrony, by showing a visual preference for the synchronous facial stimulus. This finding is consistent with the possibility that some precursors of self-recognition are already present in the first 5 months of life. This study also suggests that self-specifying information is crucial in this period of development, allowing infants to differentiate between self and others. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future studies should manipulate visual appearance (self-face versus other-face) together with multisensory cues.

Tuesday, 7 June 2016

Special Issue: Infant do, infant see: The role of feedback to infant behavior for the understanding of self and others

Volume 25, Issue 3 Pages 231 - 332, May/June 2016

Issue information

Further details below:-

The roots of turn-taking in the neonatal period.

S. Dominguez (Paris Ouest Nanterre University)
E. Devouche (Paris Descartes University, & Erasme Hospital, Psychiatry and Psychopathology Research Institute)
G. Apter (Paris Descartes University, & Paris Diderot University)
M. Gratier (Paris Ouest Nanterre University, & Paris Diderot University)

Paper Highlights

  • Newborn vocalizations occur mainly after a maternal vocalization and very few are isolated
  •  Vocal exchange between mother and newborn appears to be organized within a 1-sec time window
  • From birth, infants take turns

Author Keywords: mother–infant interaction, turn-taking, social contingency, vocal development

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1976

Monday, 6 June 2016

Preferences for ‘Gender-typed’ Toys in Boys and Girls Aged 9 to 32 Months

Brenda K. Todd (City University London)
John A. Barry (University College London)
Sara A. O. Thommessen (City University London)

Paper Highlights
This study finds sex differences in gender-typical toy choice in children aged as young as 9 to 14 months old.

Coverage related to this article:-
BPS Digest: 'When do girls and boys start preferring gender-stereotypical toys?'
Mail Online: 'Mums who refuse to let their girls wear anything pink - no matter how much they wail and beg!'

Author Keywords: sex differences, toy preference, play, gender differences, infancy

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1986

Do Questions Get Infants Talking? Infant Vocal Responses to Questions and Declaratives in Maternal Speech

Melissa Reimchen (Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba)
Melanie Soderstrom (Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba)

Paper Highlights

  • Mothers interacted with their infants in a laboratory setting
  • 10- and 14-month-old infants did not vocalize more in response to maternal questions than declaratives
  • Mothers repeated questions more at 14 months

Author keywords: maternal questions, infant vocal behaviour, turn-taking

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1985

Self-Regulation: Relations with Theory of Mind and Social Behaviour

Irem Korucu (Department of Psychology, Koc University)
Bilge Selcuk (Department of Psychology, Koc University)
Mehmet Harma (Department of Psychology, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University)

Paper Highlights

  • Self-regulation skills have an important role in both early cognitive abilities and social behaviours.
  • Children who have a better understanding of others’ minds display more social competency, but this cognitive perspective-taking ability is not related to aggressive behaviours.
  • Intervention research that targets positive social development should focus on both self-regulation skills and mental state understanding.

Author keywords: self regulation, theory of mind, social development, social competence, aggressive behavior, preschool

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1986

Relationship between Social Cognition and Temperament in Preschool-aged Children

Jennifer LaBounty (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Lindsey Bosse (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Stephanie Savicki (University of Texas, Department of Psychology)
Jaline King (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)
Sophie Eisenstat (Lewis and Clark College, Department of Psychology, Portland)

Paper Highlights
  • Preschool understanding of emotion and of mental states, such as beliefs and desires, is related to their temperament
  • Understanding of mental states (theory of mind) is associated with shy and observant temperament
  • Understanding of emotion in others is related to attention focusing and enjoyment of low arousal activities

Author Keywords: social cognition, temperament, theory of mind, emotion understanding

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1981

Monday, 30 May 2016

Blog: Fathers' rough and tumble play

Author: Jennifer StGeorge
Original paper:  Comparing Fathers' Physical and Toy Play and Links to Child Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

The background of research in rough and tumble play is in evolutionary science and ethology, where scientists studied mammals’ behaviours and play. The evidence from these studies gave clear criteria for physical interactions that were intended as play and not aggression: play behaviour in rats provides one of the clearest illustrations of these behaviours. When fighting, rats target the rump and belly of their opponent, but when play-fighting they target only the nape of the neck, clearly signalling the lack of aggressive intent. Rats are also observed to wrestle by pinning one another to the ground and to voluntarily reverse roles so that the dominated opponent can become dominant (Pellis & Pellis, 2007).

In humans, research on rough and tumble play has focused largely on children in the playground, and with similar results: Smith (2010) summarises that rough and tumble play can be distinguished from aggression by the mutual laughter and smiles of the partners, the self-restraint of physical contact, and often by the continuing social relations between partners after the play.

It is interesting therefore to consider rough and tumble play between father and child, where some parameters are entirely different to the peer-peer play.  For example, the child’s opponent is now clearly stronger than the child, which is not how young children choose their play partners (Humphreys & Smith, 1987). So for the child to want to engage in an obviously uneven match, there must be some other motivation; according to interviews with mothers and fathers (Fletcher, May, StGeorge, Morgan, Lubans, 2011; StGeorge & Fletcher, unpublished), it’s the connection between father and child: rough and tumble between dad and child is intimate and relational and builds a bond of trust and warmth between father and child.

Additionally, in peer-peer play fighting, the play is implicitly regulated by the ongoing willingness of the partners to participate. However, in father-child play, the role of regulation is clearer – if the child uses too much force, then most fathers will explicitly correct the child’s behaviours. Given these differences, we would expect to see positive outcomes for children’s social and emotional skills, and ultimately less aggression in children, boys and girls, who experience pleasurable, vigorous and competitive physical interaction with dad.

(Video may be used for educational purposes only)

Author keywords: father–child interaction, rough-and-tumble play, strengths and difficulties, self-regulation, social-emotional competence
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1958

Wednesday, 18 May 2016

Five-Month-old Infants' Discrimination of Visual–Tactile Synchronous Facial Stimulation

M. L. Filippetti (Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, and Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkeck College University of London)
T. Farroni (Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione, Universita degli Studi di Padova, and Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkeck College University of London)

M. H. Johnson (Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkeck College University of London)

Paper Highlights
  • Multisensory information is crucial in the context of self-awareness;
  • We investigated 5-month-old infants discrimination of  visual-tactile synchronous and asynchronous stimulation applied to faces;
  • During the first 5 months of life, infants seek redundant multisensory information in order to specify the bodily-self.
Author keywords: multisensory perception, body perception, face processing, infancy, self

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1977

Developmental Risk and Goodness of Fit in the Mother–Child Relationship: Links to Parenting Stress and Children's Behaviour Problems

Rebecca P. Newland (Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and Bradley/Hasbro Children's Research Center, E.P. Bradley Hospital)

Keith A. Crnic (Department of Psychology, Arizona State University)

Paper Highlights

  • Child developmental risk influences mother-child goodness of fit processes across the preschool period. 
  • Goodness of fit between maternal scaffolding and child activity level affects later parenting stress and child behavior problems.
  • Effective maternal scaffolding may be most important for children at developmental risk who exhibit high activity levels.
Author keywords: behaviour problems, child development, developmental psychopathology, early childhood, parent–child relationships, parenting stress

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1980

Empathy-Related Responding in Chinese Toddlers: Factorial Structure and Cognitive Contributors

Heqing Huang (Department of Psychology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, and College of Early Childhood Education, Capital Normal University)
Yanjie Su (Department of Psychology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University)
Jian Jin (Department of Psychology and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University)

Paper Highlights

  • Different components of empathy were identified in Chinese toddlers.
  • The independent effects of shared representation, self/other awareness and inhibitory control in the development of empathy.
  • The joint effects of three cognitive factors in the development of empathy.

Author keywords: empathy, representation, self/other awareness, inhibitory control

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1983

Monday, 16 May 2016

Blog: Knowing When Things Happened

Author: Connie Tang
Paper: Young Children's Reports of When Events Occurred: Do Event Type and Assessment Method Matter?

Young children go through life experiencing personally meaningful events as well as learning various knowledge about living. So long as children have developed a sense of self and are able to form autobiographical memories, they also begin to pay attention to the context of their memories. For example, when young children receive presents, they not only remember what the present was, they may also remember who gave them the present, where they received the present, and when this exciting event happened. 

The same process should also apply to children learning something new. Our research aimed to investigate whether young children recognize when they experienced physical events the same way as they experienced learning events. We also wanted to know if the way we ask children about when things happened influenced their answers.

In two experiments, we worked with 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers from a diverse ethnic and socioeconomic background. Across both experiments, children learned novel animal facts and body movements over a one-week span. They also colored novel animal posters and posed for photographs while displaying novel body movements. The same children then answered two types of time questions regarding the various physical and learning events: The first question type assessed children’s understanding of time points (e.g., the question of “Which did you color before today?”), and the second question type examined children’s understanding of time periods (e.g., the question of “Which did you learn a longer time ago?”).

Overall, we found young children report when they experienced physical events similarly as they experienced learning events. However, the way we asked children about when things happened affected their performance: Children were more accurate answering questions assessing time periods, and they were less accurate responding to questions assessing time points. 

Author keywords: young childre, episodic memory, knowledge acquisition, metacognition
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1963

Thursday, 12 May 2016

Research Article: Constructing Interaction: The Development of Gaze Dynamics

Iris Nomikou (Paderborn University)
Giuseppe Leonardi (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Modern Languages and Literatures)
Karharina J. Rohlfing (Paderborn University)
Joanna Rączaszek-Leonardi (Institute of Psychology Polish Academy of Sciences)

Paper Highlights

  • This paper contributes to the understanding of how infant and parent dynamically adapt to each through mutual attention over the course of the first year.
  • The paper uses innovative methods of data analysis to address the structure of interactions.

Author keywords: temporal dynamics, gaze development, cross-recurrence, mother-infant interaction

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1975

Wednesday, 11 May 2016

Research Article: More than Just the Breadwinner: The Effects of Fathers' Parenting Stress on Children's Language and Cognitive Development

Tamesha Harewood (Michigan State University)
Claire D. Vallotton (Michigan State University)
Holly Brophy-Herb (Michigan State University)

Paper Highlights

  • Fathers’ parenting stress affects children’s language and cognitive development from the second to third year of life.
  • Fathers’ parenting stress is especially detrimental to boys’ language development from the second to third year of life.
  • Fathers’ effects on their children’s development are significant even when accounting for maternal parenting qualities.
Author keywords: parenting stress, fathers, father involvement, cognitive development, language development, gender differences

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1984

Research Article: Maternal Emotion Socialization, Depressive Symptoms and Child Emotion Regulation: Child Emotionality as a Moderator

Qiong Wu (Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University)
Xin Feng (Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University)
Emma Hooper (Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University)
Seulki Ku (Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University)

Paper Highlights

  • This study enhances our understanding child emotion regulation with support for the interactive perspective of child development.
  • Findings from this study suggest that there may be different ways in which the socialization of ER occurs depending on both the child’s emotionality and the mother’s emotional states and parenting.
  • The findings from this study can further inform translational research on promoting adaptive ER in early childhood
Author keywords: emotion regulation, child emotionality, maternal emotion socialization, diathesis-stress model, maternal depression

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1979 

Research Article: Parental Guidance and Children's Executive Function: Working Memory and Planning as Moderators During Joint Problem-Solving

Sarah H. Eason (Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland)
Geetha B. Ramani (Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland)

Paper Highlights

  • Children's executive function (EF) was examined as a moderator of the relation between parent guidance and children's learning of a problem-solving task.
  • Elaborative guidance was associated with better performance during the joint activity, but only for children with low EF.
  • Directive guidance was associated with better independent performance for children with high EF, whereas children with low EF did worse when parents provided more directive guidance.

Author keywords: executive function, parent guidance, parent-child interactions, working memory, planning

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1982

Tuesday, 3 May 2016

Research Article: Coordination of Emotions in Mother-Infant Dialogues

Theano S. Kokkinaki (Department of Psychology, University of Crete)
V.G.S. Vasdekis (Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business)
Zaharenia E. Koufaki (Department of Psychology, University of Crete)
Colwyn B. Trevarthen (Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh)

Paper Highlights

  • Emotional coordination that results in matching and attunement of facial expressions in infant-mother dialogues requires that both mothers and infants adjust the timing, form and energy of their emotional expressions to obtain inter-synchrony.
  • The developmental changes of expression of emotional matching and non-matching confirmed developmental transformations in the infant’s social awareness,
  • We provided evidence that infants take initiative to control a happy and playful dialogic engagement with their mothers.

Author keywords: mother–infant interaction, facial expressions of emotion, emotional coordination, emotional non-matching, emotional completion, innate inter subjectivity

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1973

Research Article: Effect of Maternal Responsiveness on Young Infants' Social Bidding-Like Behavior during the Still Face Task

Ann E. Bigelow (Department of Psychology, St. Francis Xavier University)
Michelle Power (Department of Psychology, St. Francis Xavier University)

Paper Highlights

  • Does maternal responsiveness influence the emergence of infants' social bidding-like behaviour in the Still Face Task?
  • Maternal responsiveness predicts young infants’ social bidding-like behaviour.
  • Maternal responsiveness enhances infants’ awareness that they are effective agents in instigating social interaction.
Author keywords: social bidding-like behavior, maternal responsiveness, still face task

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1974 

Wednesday, 20 April 2016

Brief Report: Infant Predictors of Toddler Effortful Control: A Multi-method Developmentally Sensitive Approach

Nora L. Erickson (Washington State University)
M. A. Gartstein (Washington State University)
Theodore P. Beauchaine (The Ohio State University)

Paper Highlights

  • Examined multi-method indicators of temperament across infancy
  • Used multilevel modelling to explore developmental trajectories of temperament
  • Evidence supports an association between change in infant cuddliness and toddler regulatory abilities

Available here
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1971

Author keywords: temperament; effortful control; multilevel modelling

Research Article: Mothers' Reactions to Preschoolers' Proactive and Reactive Aggressive Behaviours

Sevgi Bayram Özdemir (Center for Developmental Research, Örebro University)

Charissa S. L. Cheah (Psychology, University of Maryland)

Paper Highlights

  • Turkish mothers’ feelings, perceptions, and socialization approaches to childhood aggression vary depending on its nature.
  • Mothers perceive children’s engagement in reactive aggression in the school setting as relatively more acceptable than proactive aggression.

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1972

Author keywords: proactive aggression; reactive aggression; parenting; Turkey; parenting; beliefs

Wednesday, 13 April 2016

Research Article: Assessing Biobehavioural Self-Regulation and Coregulation in Early Childhood: The Parent-Child Challenge Task

Erika Lunkenheimer (Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Colorado State University)
Christine J. Kemp (Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Colorado State University),
Rachel G. Lucas-Thompson (Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Colorado State University),
Pamela M. Cole (Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University)
Erin C. Albrecht (Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Colorado State University)

Paper Highlights

- We examined the effectiveness of the Parent-Child Challenge Task, designed to assess individual and dyadic biobehavioral regulatory processes in early childhood..

- Parents and children showed individual and dyadic changes in affect, behavior, and physiology from baseline to challenge conditions, some of which showed concurrent and predictive validity with children's externalizing problems.

- The Parent-Child Challenge Task is an effective new tool for the assessment of individual and dyadic biobehavioral regulatory processes between parents and preschoolers.

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1969

Author keywords: parent–child interaction; self-regulation; coregulation; externalizing behaviour problems; respiratory sinus arrhythmia; dyadic methods

Research Article: The Detection of Prosocial Lying by Children

Michelle Eskritt (Mount St. Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia)

Kang Lee (Dr. Erick Jackman Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto)

Paper Highlights

- Adults and children were able to detect the pro-social lies of younger children but not the older children.

- Children were able to discriminate between adults’ truthful and untruthful statements, but misidentified adults’ truthful responses as lies.

- Children with more siblings were better able to detect pro-social lies compared to children with fewer siblings.

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1969

Author keywords: prosocial lying; lie production; lie detection; deception

Monday, 11 April 2016

Papers on: Siblings for National Siblings Day 2016

For National Siblings Day, links to just a few of the papers published in Infant and Child Development about siblings. 

Current issue, Vol 25, Issue 2, March/April 2016:-
‘Infinity Means it Goes on Forever’: Siblings' Informal Teaching of Mathematics
Keywords: siblings; teaching; mathematics; informal learning; home context
Howe, N.Adrien, E.Della Porta, S.Peccia, S.Recchia, H.Osana, H. P., and Ross, HDOI: 10.1002/icd.1928

Previous issues:-
Parental Division of Household Labour and Sibling Relationship Quality: Family Relationship Mediators
sibling relationship; division of household labour; gender; parenting; middle childhood; marital satisfaction
Dawson, APike, A, and Bird, L (2015), Parental Division of Household Labour and Sibling Relationship Quality: Family Relationship Mediators.
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1890

Determinants of Joint Attention in Young Siblings' Play
joint attention;temperament;theory of mind;siblings;social interaction

Benigno, J. P. and Farrar, M. J.
DOI: 10.1002/icd.743

Sibling jealousy in early childhood: longitudinal links to sibling relationship quality
Keywords: siblings; jealousy; conflict; fathers
Kolak, A. M. and Volling, B. L.
DOI: 10.1002/icd.690

Sibling relationship quality in early adolescence: child and maternal perceptions and daily interactions
Keywords: sibling relationship quality; maternal & child perceptions; daily interactionsHowe, N., Karos, L. K. and Aquan-Assee, J
DOI: 10.1002/icd.694

Older siblings influence younger siblings' motor development

Keywords: motor development; infancy; siblings; crawling; walking
Berger, S. E. and Nuzzo, K. 
DOI: 10.1002/icd.571

Reciprocal and complementary sibling interactions, relationship quality and socio-emotional problem solving

keywords: siblings;reciprocal–complementary;relationship quality;socio-emotional problem solving
Karavasilis Karos, L., Howe, N. and Aquan-Assee, J. 
DOI: 10.1002/icd.492

‘You be the big sister’: Maternal-preschooler internal state discourse, perspective-taking, and sibling caretaking

  • Keywords: siblings; 
  • caretaking; 
  • perspective-taking; 
  • discourse
  • Howe, N. and Rinaldi, C. M.
    DOI: 10.1002/icd.350

Wednesday, 6 April 2016

New Issue: Volume 25, Issue 2, March/April 2016

Link to Volume 25, Issue 2, March/April 2016

Issue Information (pages 117–118)
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1936

Research Articles

Blog: Lying for the Collective

Author: Gail Heyman

Although disapproval of lying is widespread across human societies, people often carve out exceptions. We investigated one such case: when a lie is told to advance the interests of people that one is associated with. Lies that are told in these contexts are sometimes called blue lies because they resemble situations in which police officers, who typically wear blue uniforms in the United States, make false statements to protect fellow officers who are being investigated for misconduct.

We studied moral judgments about blue lies in China, where group loyalty is a strongly emphasized social value. Participants ranging in age from 9 to 17 heard about individuals who lied to conceal transgressions that were committed by members of groups the participant was associated with. The way the group was defined varied in scale: it was described as being comprised of individuals in either the participant's classroom, school, or country. For example, participants in one story were told about a volleyball match between high school teams representing China and the U.S. While watching the match, a Chinese protagonist realizes that one member of her team is actually a star college player rather than a high school student, but she lies when asked about it so that her team will look good and win the game.

We found that older children placed a greater emphasis on loyalty to larger and more abstract groups: 9- and 11-year olds were least critical of blue lies told to benefit a speaker’s class, 13-year olds were least critical of blue lies told to benefit a speaker’s school, and 17-year olds were least critical of blue lies told to benefit a speaker’s country. These findings suggest that young children initially develop a sense of loyalty toward individuals they know personally within small group settings, and that when children are older they begin to extend this sense of loyalty to larger groups. These results are consistent with the possibility that patriotism emerges as an extension of feelings that children first develop when interacting in small, close-knit groups. 

Tuesday, 5 April 2016

Research Article: Behavioural Problems in Children with Headache and Maternal Stress: Is Children's Attachment Security a Protective Factor?

Lavinia Barone (Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia)
Francesca Lionetti (Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia)
Antonio Dellagiulia, (Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia)
Federica Galli (Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan)
Silvia Molteni (Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia)

Umberto Balottin (Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, and Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute)

Paper Highlights

  • Children’s headache is a potentially disabling condition involving enduring pain that negatively influences the quality of family life.
  • Behavioural problems are often present in children with headache, and are potentially associated with higher levels of parental stress in the caring tasks.
  • In families with chronic health problems, like headache, a good relation between the mother and the child, that is attachment security, may help in managing negative emotions, helping in breaking the cycle of children’s behavioural problems and parental stress.

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1950

Research Article: Promoting Honesty: The Influence of Stories on Children's Lie-Telling Behaviours and Moral Understanding

Victoria Talwar (Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University)
Sarah Yachison (Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University)

Karissa Leduc (Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University)

Paper Highlights

  • The current study investigated the influence of moral stories which emphasized positive moral consequences for honesty, negative moral consequences for lying or a neutral story on children’s willingness to lie for another individual
  • While most children initially tried to keep the secret, children in  children in the positive story condition were more likely to tell the truth when asked direct questions compared to those in the negative story and neutral storyconditions
  • In addition, the type of story children were read had a significant impact on their evaluations of true and false statements

DOI: 10.1002/icd.1949

Research Article: Agent Perception in Children with and Without Imaginary Companions

Yusuke Moriguchi (Department of School Education, Joetsu University of Education and Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO programme)
Ikuko Shinohara (National Institute for Educational Policy Research)

Mikako Ishibashi (Department of Psychology, Ochanomizu University)

Link to article
DOI: 10.1002/icd.1953